Download E-books Trade & Finance in Ancient Mesopotamia: Proceedings of the First Mos Symposium PDF

By J. G. Dercksen

The 1st in a sequence of courses regarding the Dutch venture "The financial system of old Mesopotamia".

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Yoffee 1981,4-6. Cf. Snell 1997, 149-151. particularly Veenhof 1972, 348-351. MONIES, causes, and techniques nine referred in rejecting Polanyi's conception as a useful gizmo for learning Mesopotamian historical past. For strong cause: it really is an undemanding precept of historic procedure that one key mistake in an overarching historic concept is an efficient indication that the remainder of the speculation is vulnerable to comprise severe flaws. within the mid-1970s, after arriving from my first prolonged remain within the Soviet Union and being no longer completely happy with the Marxist model of Mesopotamian historical past labored out through Soviet students, i made a decision to paintings during the literature touching on Polanyi's thought and to check it at the Mesopotamian facts. i found that key parts couldn't be made to slot: markets and retailers. I referred to as awareness to this challenge in papers (1977, 1978a) of which I reiterate the following the details, simply because they're nonetheless legitimate. Polanyi made the next assumptions and assertions approximately Mesopotamian markets:" 1. Herodotus, who visited Babylon in the course of the fifth century BC, mentioned that the Persians had no markets. 2. Babylonian records demonstrate no crucial financial alterations among outdated Babylonian and Persian sessions. three. Marketplaces, in the event that they had existed during Hammurabi (Old Babylonian), could have nonetheless existed in the course of Herodotus. four. In Palestine, archaeology printed no open areas in cities that can kind of be interpreted as marketplaces. five. Cuneiform descriptions of Babylon fail to say a market. 6. No notice for market exists in cuneiform assets. 7. in keeping with A. Leo Oppenheim, archaeological facts doesn't want the lifestyles of marketplaces inside towns through the complete close to East. issues 1 and three are fallible, simply because they leisure upon a misinterpretation of Herodotus, who was once conversing, no longer approximately Babylon, yet really approximately an ethnic attribute of the Persians, the well-known disdain of the Persian, horse-riding, warrior classification for mundane concerns like exchange. issues 2, five, and six are demonstrably fake, and three and six leisure on incorrect information and misconceptions. That the Akkadian observe mahiru (from a root with meanings within the semantic variety of "come face to face", "correspond", "receive") has either the which means of "market-rate" and "market-place" makes it inherently possible that marketplaces existed in Babylonia, and no historian with no an awl to grind who reads throughout the proof offered via W. Rollig in his essay at the old Mesopotamian marketplace (1976) and by way of the Akkadian dictionaries (CAD MI1, 92-99; AHw 583f. ) will fail to acknowledge that Rollig and the dictionaries are correct and Polanyi unsuitable. in addition, aspect five, in regards to the topography of Babylon having no point out of a marketplace, is now explicitly refuted within the first-class variation of topographical texts by means of A. R. George, the place the "Market Gate", positioned within the jap a part of the town (i. e. ,on the japanese facet of the river) is used as a key orientation aspect for outlining urban quarters: "from the marketplace Gate to the Grand Gate is named Eridu, from the marketplace Gate to the UraH Gate is named Suanna".

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