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By Luciano Ramalho
Python’s simplicity helps you to turn into efficient fast, yet this usually capability you aren’t utilizing every thing it has to provide. With this hands-on consultant, you’ll find out how to write powerful, idiomatic Python code by way of leveraging its best—and in all probability so much neglected—features. writer Luciano Ramalho takes you thru Python’s center language beneficial properties and libraries, and indicates you the way to make your code shorter, speedier, and extra readable on the similar time.
Many skilled programmers try and bend Python to slot styles they realized from different languages, and not detect Python positive factors outdoor in their event. With this ebook, these Python programmers will completely turn into educated in Python 3.
This e-book covers:
- Python facts model: know how detailed tools are the major to the constant habit of objects
- Data structures: take complete good thing about integrated varieties, and comprehend the textual content vs bytes duality within the Unicode age
- Functions as objects: view Python features as top notch gadgets, and know how this impacts well known layout patterns
- Object-oriented idioms: construct periods via studying approximately references, mutability, interfaces, operator overloading, and a number of inheritance
- Control flow: leverage context managers, turbines, coroutines, and concurrency with the concurrent.futures and asyncio packages
- Metaprogramming: know how homes, characteristic descriptors, type decorators, and metaclasses work
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Extra info for Fluent Python
Three. Returns a connection with that record. The callable that produces the default values is held in an example characteristic referred to as default_factory. instance 3-5. index_default. py: utilizing an example of defaultdict rather than the setdefault procedure """Build an index mapping notice -> checklist of occurrences""" import sys import re import collections WORD_RE = re. compile('\w+') index = collections. defaultdict(list) with open(sys. argv, encoding='utf-8') as fp: for line_no, line in enumerate(fp, 1): for fit in WORD_RE. finditer(line): note = fit. group() column_no = fit. start()+1 place = (line_no, column_no) index[word]. append(location) # print in alphabetical order for notice in sorted(index, key=str. upper): print(word, index[word]) Create a defaultdict with the checklist as default_factory. If be aware isn't in the beginning within the index, the default_factory is termed to supply the lacking worth, which as a result is an empty checklist that's then assigned to index[word] and lower back, so the . append(location) operation continuously succeeds. If no default_factory is supplied, the standard KeyError is raised for lacking keys. Mappings with versatile Key look up | seventy one The default_factory of a defaultdict is simply invoked to seasoned‐ vide default values for __getitem__ calls, and never for the opposite equipment. for instance, if dd is a defaultdict, and okay is a lacking key, dd[k] will name the default_factory to create a default val‐ ue, yet dd. get(k) nonetheless returns None. The mechanism that makes defaultdict paintings via calling default_factory is absolutely the __missing__ distinct procedure, a function supported by means of all average mapping forms that we talk about subsequent. The __missing__ technique Underlying the way in which mappings take care of lacking keys is the aptly named __missing__ strategy. this system isn't outlined within the base dict category, yet dict knows it: when you subclass dict and supply a __missing__ approach, the normal dict. __getitem__ will name it every time a secret's now not came across, rather than elevating KeyError. The __missing__ process is simply known as through __getitem__ (i. e. , for the d[k] operator). The presence of a __missing__ approach has no impact at the habit of different equipment that search for keys, resembling get or __contains__ (which implements the in operator). it is because the default_factory of defaultdict works simply with __getitem__, as famous within the caution on the finish of the former part. feel you’d like a mapping the place keys are switched over to str whilst appeared up. A concrete use case is the Pingo. io venture, the place a programmable board with GPIO pins (e. g. , the Raspberry Pi or the Arduino) is represented by way of a board item with a board. pins characteristic, that's a mapping of actual pin destinations to pin items, and the actual position could be only a quantity or a string like "A0" or "P9_12". For con‐ sistency, it truly is fascinating that every one keys in board. pins are strings, however it is usually handy that having a look up my_arduino. pin works to boot, so newbies aren't tripped after they are looking to blink the LED on pin thirteen in their Arduinos.